I'd like to start that I am by no means a lawyer, nor a law student, so I ask as a normal layperson with limited formal knowledge in Philippine Laws.
Under Art. 2180 of the Civil Code, employers may be held liable for negligence caused by its employees while performing his/her duties. However, are employers allowed by the law to hold its employees liable for any damanges they incur due to negligence?
Ie. If an employee (driver) accidentally hits a pedestrian, the employee pay for the hospital bills of the said victim. In turn, (a) does the employer have the right to make the employee pay for part / whole of the damages (to the employer)? Furthermore, with the appropriate agreements (included in the company's rules and policies / contract signing)(b) does the employer have the right to withhold salaries to pay off the bill (in an affordable scheme for the employee)? (c) Does the employer have the right to withhold the bill off of the person's separation pay (whether or not the act is / isn't a valid reason for termination without separation pay)?