I'm posing this question for a friend. Here is the situation. My friend who has been working abroad for years left the title (deed) to an area of land he owns in safekeeping with a relative. He has recently discovered this relative has used his land deed as collateral towards a personal loan with a third party (not a pawnshop or legitimate financing institution). Details are still uncertain, but there is a real possibility that the loan amount maybe too high for my friend to pay off. The relative who pawned the title (without prior knowledge of my friend, the actual land owner), has been delinquent with payments and quite possibly has no means, nor ever had the intention of paying off the loan. Question is, did the relative have any right to use the land deed as collateral towards the loan? Does the provider (financier) of the loan have any legal rights with the deed that was used as collateral, since the actual owner of the land was unaware, nor did not authorize any sale or collateral loans with said property? Is the collateral loan legally binding, and is my friend, the actual owner of the land/deed liable for any part of this loan? What action or actions should my friend take? Thank you much in advance for taking the time and giving advice!!