2013 POLITICAL LAW Bar Exam Question (MCQ)
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
The equal protection clause is violated by ____. (1%)
a law prohibiting motorcycles from plying on limited access
a law granting Value Added Tax exemption to electric
cooperatives that sells electricity to the "homeless poor."
a law providing that a policeman shall be preventively
suspended until the termination of a criminal case against him.
a law providing higher salaries to teachers in public schools
who are "foreign hires."
a law that grants rights to local Filipino workers but denies the
same rights to overseas Filipino workers.
Offended by the President's remarks that the Bureau of Customs is a pit of misfits and the corrupt, the Bureau of Customs Employees Association composed of 3,000 workers seeks your legal advice on how best to protest what it views to be the President's baseless remarks. A prudent legal advice is that---·--· ( 1%)
(A) employees can go on mass leave of absence for one week
(B) employees can march and rally at Mendiola every
(C) employees can barricade the gates of the Port of Manila at
South Harbor and call for the resignation of the incumbent
(D) employees can wear black arm bands and pins with the
word "UNFAIR" inscribed
(E) None of the above can legally be done.
Congress enacted Republic Act No. 1234 requiring all candidates for
public offices to post an election bond equivalent to the one (I) year salary
for the position for which they are candidates. The bond shall be forfeited if
the candidates fail to obtain at least 10% ofthe votes cast.
Is Republic Act No. 1234 valid? (1 %)
It is valid as the bond is a means ofensuring fair, honest,
peaceful and orderly elections.
It is valid as the bond requirement ensures that only candidates
with sufficient means and who cannot be corrupted, can run
for public office.
It is invalid as the requirement effectively imposes a property
qualification to run for public office.
It is invalid as the amount ofthe surety bond is excessive and
It is valid because it is a reasonable requirement; the
Constitution itself expressly supports the accountability of
What is the legal effect of decisions of the International Court of
Justice in cases submitted to it for resolution? (1 %)
The decision is binding on other countries in similar situations.
The decision is not binding on any country, even the countries
that are parties to the case.
The decision is binding only on the parties but only with respect
to that particular case.
The decision is not binding on the parties and is only advisory.
The binding effect on the parties depends on their submission
Under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, the exclusive
economic zone refers to an area . (l%)
that is at least 100 miles from the baselines from which the
outer limit ofthe territorial sea is measured
that is at least 200 miles but not to exceed 300 miles from the
baselines from which the outer limit ofthe territorial sea is
beyond and adjacent to a country's territorial sea which cannot
go beyond 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which
the outer limit of the territorial sea is measured
that can go beyond 3 nautical miles but cannot extend 300
nautical miles from the baselines from which the outer limit of
the territorial sea is measured
None ofthe above.
A child born under either the 1973 or the 1987 Constitution, whose
father or mother is a Filipino citizen at the time of his birth, is
not a Filipino citizen as his father and mother must both be
Filipino citizens at the time of his birth
not a Filipino citizen if his mother is a Filipino citizen but his
father is not, at the time of his birth
a Filipino citizen no matter where he or she may be born
a Filipino citizen provided the child is born in the Philippines
a Filipino citizen if he or she so elects upon reaching the age of
Who has control of the expenditure of public funds? (I%)
The Office ofthe President through the Department of Budget
The House of Representatives from where all appropriation
The Senate through its Committee on Finance.
The Congress of the Republic ofthe Philippines.
Both the members of Congress and the President acting jointly,
if so provided by the General Appropriations Act.
May the power of cities to raise revenues be limited by an executive
order of the President? ( 1%)
Yes, because local government units are under the
administrative control of the President through the Department
of Interior and Local Government.
No, because local government units now enjoy full local fiscal
(C) No, because only limitations established by Congress can
define and limit the powers of local governments.
(D) Yes, because the President has the power and authority to
impose reasonable restrictions on the power of cities to raise
Yes, if so provided in a city's charter.
The provision under the Constitution -that any member who took no part, dissented, or inhibited from a decision or resolution must state the reason for his dissent or non-participation-applies . . (1 %)
only to the Supreme Court
to both the Supreme Court and the Court of Appeals
to the Supreme Court, Court of Appeals and the
to the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeals, the Sandiganbayan
and the Court of Tax Appeals
to all collegial judicial and quasi-judicial adjudicatory bodies
Choose the least accurate statement about the independence
guaranteed by the 1987 Constitution to the following constitutional bodies: (1%)
The Constitution guarantees the COMELEC decisional and
institutional independence similar to that granted to the
All bodies labeled as "independent" by the Constitution enjoy
fiscal autonomy as an attribute oftheir independence.
Not all bodies labeled as "independent" by the Constitution
were intended to be independent from the Executive branch of
The Constitution guarantees various degrees of independence
from the other branches of government when it labels bodies as
The COMELEC, the COA, and the CSC enjoy the same degree
At the Senate impeachment trial of Justice Pablo P. San Quintin, Hon.Emilio A. Tan, Congressman and Impeachment Panel Manager, wrote the Supreme Court requesting that the prosecutors be allowed to examine the court records of Stewards Association of the Philippines, Inc. (SAP!) v. Filipinas Air, et al., G.R. No. 987654, a case that is still pending. The High Court . (1%)
may grant the request by reason of inter-departmental courtesy
may grant the request as the records of the Filipinas Air case are
should deny the request since records of cases that are pending
for decision are privileged except only for pleadings, orders and
resolutions that are available to the public
should deny the request because it violates the Court's
independence and the doctrine of separation of powers
should grant the request because of the sui generis nature of the
power of impeachment, provided that the Bill ofRights is not
Mr. Sinco sued the government for damages. After trial, the court
ruled in his favor and awarded damages amounting to P50 million against the government. To satisfY the judgment against the government, which valid option is available to Mr. Sinco? ( 1%)
Garnish the government funds deposited at the Land Bank.
File a claim with the Commission on Audit (COA) pursuant to
Commonwealth Act 327, as amended by Presidential Decree
Make representations with the Congress to appropriate the
amount to satisfy the judgment.
File a petition for mandamus in court to compel Congress to
appropriate P50 million to satisfy the judgment.
Proceed to execute the judgment as provided by the Rules of
Court because the State allowed itself to be sued.
Which of the following provisions of the Constitution does not confer rights that can be enforced in the courts but only provides guidelines for legislative or executive action? ( l%)
The maintenance of peace and order, the protection of life,
liberty, and property, and promotion of the general welfare are
essential for the enjoyment by all the people of the blessings of
The State shall give priority to education, science and
technology, arts, culture, and sports to foster patriotism and
nationalism, accelerate social progress, and promote total
human liberation and development.
The natural and primary right and duty of parents in the rearing
of the youth for civic efficiency and the development of moral
character shall receive the support of the Government.
The right of the people to information on matters. of public
concern shall be recognized. Access to official records, and to
documents and papers pertaining to official acts, transactions,
or decisions, as well as to government research data used as
basis for policy development, shall be afforded the citizen,
subject to such limitations as may be provided by law.
All the above only provide guidelines and are not self executing.
The President entered into an executive agreement with Vietnam for the supply to the Philippines of animal feeds not to exceed 40,000 tons in any one year. The Association of Animal Feed Sellers of the Philippines questioned the executive agreement for being contrary to R.A. 462 which prohibits the importation ofanimal feeds from Asian countries.Is the challenge correct? (1%)
Yes, the executive agreement is contrary to an existing
No, the President is solely in charge of foreign relations and all
his actions in this role form part ofthe law of the land.
No, international agreements are sui generis and stand
independently of our domestic laws.
Yes, the executive agreement is actually a treaty which does not
take effect without ratification by the Senate.
Yes, the challenge is correct because there is no law
empowering the President to undertake the importation.
The separation of Church and State 1s most clearly violated when
the State funds a road project whose effect is to make a church
more accessible to its adherents
the State declares the birthplace of a founder of a religious sect
as a national historical site
the State expropriates church property in order to construct an
expressway that, among others, provides easy access to the
Church's main cathedral
the State gives vehicles to bishops to assist them in churchrelated
the State allows prayers in schools for minor children without
securing the prior consent oftheir parents
Patricio was elected member of the House of Representative in the
May 2010 Elections. His opponent Jose questioned Patricio's victory before the House of Representatives Electoral Tribunal and later with the Supreme Court. In a decision promulgated in November 2011, the Court ruled in Jose's favor; thus, Patricio was ousted from his seat in Congress. Within a year from that decision, the President can appoint Patricio (1%)
only as a member of the board of directors of any government
owned and controlled corporation
only as a deputy Ombudsman
only as a Commissioner ofthe Civil Service Commission
only as Chairman of the Commission on Elections
to any position as no prohibition applies to Patricio
Senator GSC proposed a bill increasing excise taxes on tobacco
and alcohol products. The generated incremental revenues shall be used for the universal health care program for all Filipinos and for tobacco farmers' livelihood. After the Senate passed the bill on third reading, it was transmitted to the House of Representatives which approved the bill in toto. The President eventually signed it into law. Atty. JFC filed a petition before the Supreme Court, questioning the constitutionality of the new law. Is the law constitutional? ( 1%)
The law is constitutional because it is for a public purpose and
has duly satisfied the three-readings-on-separate-days rule in
The law is unconstitutional because it violates the equal
protection clause of the Constitution; it is limited only to
alcohol and liquor products.
It is constitutional because of the Enrolled Bill Theory.
It is constitutional because it is valid in form and substance and
complied with the required lawmaking procedures.
None of the above is Correct.
Which of the following statements is correct? (I%)
The President, with the concurrence of the Monetary Board, can
guarantee a foreign loan on behalf of the Republic of the
Congress may, by law, provide limitations on the President's
power to contract or guarantee foreign loans on behalf of the
Republic of the Philippines.
In order to be valid and effective, treaties and executive
agreements must be concurred in by at least two-thirds ofall the
Members of the Senate.
The President shall, at the end of every quarter of the calendar
year, submit to Congress a complete report of the loans
contracted or guaranteed by the Government or governmentowned
and controlled corporations.
All the above choices are defective in some respects.
Candida has been administratively charged of immorality for
openly living with Manuel, a married man. Candida argues that her conjugal arrangement with Manuel fully conforms with their religious beliefs and with the teachings oftheir church.
In resolving whether Candida should be administratively penalized,
which is the best test to apply? ( 1%)
(A) Clear and Present Danger Test
(B) Compelling State Interest Test
(C) Balancing ofinterests Test
(D) Conscientious Objector Test
(E) Dangerous Tendency Test
Rafael questioned the qualifications of Carlos as congressman
of the Third District of Manila on the ground that Carlos is a citizen of the USA. The decision disqualifying Carlos for being a US citizen came only in March 2010, i.e., after the adjournment of the session of Congress on the 3'd year ofthe position's three-year term.
What was Carlos' status during his incumbency as congressman?
He was a de jure officer, having been duly elected and
He was not a public officer because he effectively was not
entitled to be a congressman.
He was a de jure officer since he completed the service of his
term before he was disqualified.
He was a de facto officer since he had served and was only
He neither possesses de jure nor de facto status as such
determination is pointless.